Res. Bult., No (77), Agric. Res. Center, King Saud Univ., Pp. (5-33), 1998




Res. Bult., No (77), Agric. Res. Center, King Saud Univ., PP. (5-33), 1998

The Effect of Saudi Per Capita Gross Domestic

Product Variations on the Saudi Rice Imports


Yousef A. Alseleem


Abstract


The main objective of this study was Res. Bult., No (77), Agric. Res. Center, King Saud Univ., Pp. (5-33), 1998 to estimate the optimum distribution patterns of rice among international regions with reference to Saudi market. The other objective was to estimate the impact of selected changes in Saudi gross domestic products Res. Bult., No (77), Agric. Res. Center, King Saud Univ., Pp. (5-33), 1998 per capita on the optimum distribution of rice found in the results of the main objective. Reactive programming technique was used in this study. The reactive programming technique were able to Res. Bult., No (77), Agric. Res. Center, King Saud Univ., Pp. (5-33), 1998 optimize flow of rice.


For the purpose of this analysis, the whole world was divided into 7 producing regions and seven consumption regions. Fixed supplies were used for producing regions and demand functions were estimated Res. Bult., No (77), Agric. Res. Center, King Saud Univ., Pp. (5-33), 1998 for each consumption region. The ordinary least squares method was used to estimate the demand function for rice. Transportation costs were then estimated between each supply origins and demand points Res. Bult., No (77), Agric. Res. Center, King Saud Univ., Pp. (5-33), 1998.


The results of the base model showed an optimum distribution of rice within the supply and demand regions. the study, also, estimated the impact of selected changes in Saudi gross domestic Res. Bult., No (77), Agric. Res. Center, King Saud Univ., Pp. (5-33), 1998 products per capita on the optimum distribution of rice found in the base model.

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Dept. of Extension & Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture & Veter. Medicine, King Saud Univ., Qassim Branch, P.O. Pox 1482, Buraidah

Res. Bult Res. Bult., No (77), Agric. Res. Center, King Saud Univ., Pp. (5-33), 1998., No (78), Agric. Res. Center, King Saud Univ., PP. (5-16), 1998

^ Growth performance of Paulownia clones in the arid coastal climate of Kuwait


N. R. Bhat T. A. Madouh H. Al-Manaie M. Al Res. Bult., No (77), Agric. Res. Center, King Saud Univ., Pp. (5-33), 1998-Zalzaleh


Abstract


A clonal evaluation study was undertaken at two coastal locations (exposed and protected) in Kuwait to determine growth response and greenery impacts of five Paulownia clones. Growth and phenological observations recorded Res. Bult., No (77), Agric. Res. Center, King Saud Univ., Pp. (5-33), 1998 during the first three years indicated that the five Paulownia clones tested were able to survive and grow under coastal arid conditions. However, the general condition and vigor of plants in the Res. Bult., No (77), Agric. Res. Center, King Saud Univ., Pp. (5-33), 1998 exposed site were unacceptable for greenery enhancement, especially during summer months. Plants showed differential responses to the conditions prevailing in two testing locations. Generally, plants in Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR Res. Bult., No (77), Agric. Res. Center, King Saud Univ., Pp. (5-33), 1998) main campus were taller, more vigorous, and had thicker stems than those in the waterfront location. The plants of the clone X with an average height of 4.8 m in three years (about 87 % taller than Res. Bult., No (77), Agric. Res. Center, King Saud Univ., Pp. (5-33), 1998 clone J) were the tallest of all the clones at the KISR main facility. After three years plants had a stem diameter ranging from 4.5 (J clone) to 5.2 (X clone) and 5.2 (H clone) to Res. Bult., No (77), Agric. Res. Center, King Saud Univ., Pp. (5-33), 1998 7.45 cm (X clone) at the waterfront and KISR main campus sites, respectively. Plants remained deciduous from late December to March, but produced attractive cream or off-white colored flowers during Res. Bult., No (77), Agric. Res. Center, King Saud Univ., Pp. (5-33), 1998 March - April. They had the greatest greenery impacts during spring and early summer months. Considering the growth responses, phenological and other visual observations мейд till date, clones tested in this study Res. Bult., No (77), Agric. Res. Center, King Saud Univ., Pp. (5-33), 1998 are recommended for greenery development in protected sites and in mixed plantations with other hardy plants.


^ Key words: Greenery enhancement, amenity planting, afforestation, heat tolerance

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Aridland Agricultural Department, Food Resources Division, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research Res. Bult., No (77), Agric. Res. Center, King Saud Univ., Pp. (5-33), 1998, P. O. BOX 24885, 13109 Safat, Kuwait

Res. Bult., No. (79 ), Agric. Res. Center, King Saud Univ., pp. (5-18) 1998

Enzyme Activities, Lipid Fractions, and Fatty Acid Composition in Male Rats Fed Palm Pollen Grains

(Phoenix dactylifera Res. Bult., No (77), Agric. Res. Center, King Saud Univ., Pp. (5-33), 1998)

^ Reshod A. Al-Shagrawi


Abstract: This study presents the effects of date palm pollen grains (Phoenix dactylifera) on lipid fractions (total lipids, triglyceride, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low Res. Bult., No (77), Agric. Res. Center, King Saud Univ., Pp. (5-33), 1998-density lipoprotein cholesterol) of the plasma, liver and brain of rats, as well as fatty acid composition and the activities of liver function enzymes. These enzymes include plasma glutamate pyruvate, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases, lactate Res. Bult., No (77), Agric. Res. Center, King Saud Univ., Pp. (5-33), 1998 dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and g-glutamyl transferase tested in male rats, fed synthetic diet which were supplemented with different concentrations of date palm pollen grains (0.0%, 2.0% and 4.0%), for 35d. There were significant Res. Bult., No (77), Agric. Res. Center, King Saud Univ., Pp. (5-33), 1998 reduction in plasma total cholesterol by 30.8% and 19.1%, total lipids by 39.1 and 39.86, triglyceride by 6.9% and 41.8%, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 54.7 and 21.8 in rats consumed modified diets containing 2.0% and 4.0% pollen grains of Res. Bult., No (77), Agric. Res. Center, King Saud Univ., Pp. (5-33), 1998 date palm, respectively. However, there was a significant (P<0.003) elevation in plasma high-density lipoprotein - cholesterol of treated rats compared to the control. Lipid fractions of liver and brain in treated rats were also significantly Res. Bult., No (77), Agric. Res. Center, King Saud Univ., Pp. (5-33), 1998 lowered compared to the control. The liver function enzyme activities were significantly reduced in treated rats. The percentages of stearic acid (C18:0), arachidic acid (C20:0) and lignoceric acid (C Res. Bult., No (77), Agric. Res. Center, King Saud Univ., Pp. (5-33), 199824:0) showed significant elevation in rats which consumed 2% and 4% pollen grains in the diets. This study showed that date palm pollen grains play a role in lowering lipid fractions and protect the liver by maintenance Res. Bult., No (77), Agric. Res. Center, King Saud Univ., Pp. (5-33), 1998 of liver function enzyme activities.


Key Words: Pollen grains, Enzyme activities, Lipid fractions, Rats.

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Dept. of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Agriculture, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2460, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Res. Bult., No (77), Agric. Res. Center, King Saud Univ., Pp. (5-33), 1998 Arabia.

Res. Bult., No. (80), Agric. Res. Center, King Saud Univ., pp. (5-25) 1999
^ UNSTEADY FLOW THROUGH A PIPE
CONNECTING TWO RESERVOIRS

Helmi M. Hathoot


ABSTRACT


This paper addresses the unsteady flow through a pipe connecting Res. Bult., No (77), Agric. Res. Center, King Saud Univ., Pp. (5-33), 1998 two reservoirs with varying differential liquid levels. A formula is presented for computing the time necessary to reduce the differential head in the reservoirs. The formula considers the variation of the pipe friction Res. Bult., No (77), Agric. Res. Center, King Saud Univ., Pp. (5-33), 1998 coefficient with both Reynolds’ number and the relative roughness. A computer program is presented which evaluates the time numerically and compares the results with those obtained from an approximate formula in Res. Bult., No (77), Agric. Res. Center, King Saud Univ., Pp. (5-33), 1998 which the friction coefficient is considered to be constant. It is found that in some cases the approximate formula may be in error by more than 50%.


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Department of mathematics, College of Science, King Saud Univ Res. Bult., No (77), Agric. Res. Center, King Saud Univ., Pp. (5-33), 1998., P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Res. Bult., No (81), Agric. Res. Center, King Saud Univ., pp. (5-37) 1999.


Microbial Quality and Safety of Sausages Processed in Major Supermarkets in Riyadh City, and in National Res. Bult., No (77), Agric. Res. Center, King Saud Univ., Pp. (5-33), 1998 Meat Factories

^ Mosffer M. Al-Dagal
ABSTRACT: This study was initiated to evaluate the microbial quality and safety for four types of fresh sausages produced in five major supermarkets in Riyadh City Res. Bult., No (77), Agric. Res. Center, King Saud Univ., Pp. (5-33), 1998, and for two frozen types from three national meat factories. The ranges for total aerobic counts from the five supermarkets were 5.95-8.10, 6.30-7.36, 5.39-7.31, and 5.77-6.83; for staphylococci were 3.04-4.05, 3.05-4.36, 2.62-3.36, and 2.48-3.33; for Clostridium perfringens were Res. Bult., No (77), Agric. Res. Center, King Saud Univ., Pp. (5-33), 1998 0.35-1.39, 0.00-1.25, 0.84-1.47, and 0.77-1.49; for coliform were 2.74-3.98, 3.32-4.20, 2.99-3.33, and 2.50-4.16; for fecal coliform were 1.96-2.57, 1.71-3.47, 2.21-2.72, and 1.56-2.49; and for Enterococcus faecalis were 3.08-4.01, 2.67-4.18, 2.42-4.21, and 2.57-4.19 Log CFU/gm in Lebanese, longaniza, Barbecue, and Cumberland sausages, respectively.

The ranges for the total Res. Bult., No (77), Agric. Res. Center, King Saud Univ., Pp. (5-33), 1998 aerobic count in three factories were 4.28-5.32 and 4.30-5.37; for staphylococci were 2.02-3.58 and 0.95-3.19; for Clostridium perfringens were 0.56-1.36 and 0.00-0.64; for coliform were 0.00-3.38 and 1.06-2.34; for fecal coliform were 0.00-1.11 and 0.00-1.10; and for Enterococcus faecalis were 1.47-3.69 and Res. Bult., No (77), Agric. Res. Center, King Saud Univ., Pp. (5-33), 1998 2.58-4.17 Log CFU/gm in Lebanes and Longaniza sausages, respectively.

By using biochemical and other testes, it was possible to identify some gram-positive bacteria from fresh sausage. The first groupe was Lactic Acid Bacteria Res. Bult., No (77), Agric. Res. Center, King Saud Univ., Pp. (5-33), 1998 followed by both staphylococci and micrococci then bacilli. It was also possible to identify less (5% only) gram-negative bacteria as Xanthomonas compestris, Hydrogenocphaga valava, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Serritia liquefciens. One colony Res. Bult., No (77), Agric. Res. Center, King Saud Univ., Pp. (5-33), 1998 only of Staphylococcus aureus was identified among 31 colonies isolated from the selective medium.


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Food Science and Nutrition Dept., College of Agric., P.O. Box 2460 Riyadh-11451, Saudi Arabia.

Res. Bult., No (82), Agric Res. Bult., No (77), Agric. Res. Center, King Saud Univ., Pp. (5-33), 1998. Res. Center, King Saud Univ., pp. (5-23) 1999.

^ Response of Twenty-Four Landscape Plant Species Grown Under the Coastal Arid Climate of Kuwait to Irrigation and Fertilizer Treatments


N. R. Bhat F. K. Taha Habiba Al-Menaie Res. Bult., No (77), Agric. Res. Center, King Saud Univ., Pp. (5-33), 1998 Mazid Al-Zalzaleh


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